Contributions of Select Hopping Regimes to the Terpenoid Content and Hop Aroma Profile of Ale and Lager Beers

Daniel C. Sharp (1), Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330, U.S.A.; Yanping Qian, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, U.S.A.; Gina Shellhammer, Shellhammer Consulting, Corvallis, OR 97330, U.S.A.; and Thomas H. Shellhammer, Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330, U.S.A. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 75(2):93-100, 2017.

(1) Corresponding author. Phone: +1.541.737.8026. E-mail:

​Recently, brewers have dramatically increased the complexity and intensity of aromas in hop-forward beers by using diverse hopping regimes. For this study, the terpenoid content and sensory attributes of beers made using different hop additions were measured. Beers were brewed while varying two factors: hop cultivar (Simcoe and Hallertau Mittelfrüh) and timing of hop addition (60 min boil, 25 min whirlpool, or 48 h dry hopping). Additionally, the impact of yeast strain on treatment was investigated. Each treatment was compared with an unhopped control using stir-bar sorptive extraction GC-MS and descriptive sensory analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis showed relationships between instrumental and sensory techniques. Whirlpool additions produced beers with the highest concentrations of geraniol, linalool, and β-citronellol; beers brewed with highly aromatic Simcoe hops produced more intense and individually distinct aromas for each hopping regime compared with the Hallertau Mittelfrüh hopped beers. Conversely, beers brewed with Hallertau Mittelfrüh hops showed less intense aromas with less distinction between hopping regimes, except for the dry-hopped treatment, which was characterized by a more floral type of aroma than the other Hallertau Mittelfrüh treatments. This research shows that despite the popularity of dry hopping as an aroma hopping method, whirlpool additions can produce more intensely aromatic beers. Keywords: Dry hopping, Whirlpool hopping, Kettle hopping, Stir-bar sorptive extraction, Simcoe, Hallertau Mittelfrüh